Dr Lalit Verma


​​​​​1. What is hepatitis?

Hepatitis is an inflammation of the liver and can result in liver cell damage and destruction. Hepatitis in children has many different origins or causes. A child may contract hepatitis from exposure to a viral source. The following is a list of some of the viruses associated with hepatitis:

  • Hepatitis viruses. Six main types of the hepatitis virus have been identified, including hepatitis A, B, C, D, E, and G.
  • Cytomegalovirus (CMV). This virus is a part of the herpes virus family that can be transmitted from person-to-person.
  • Epstein-Barr virus (EBV). The virus most commonly associated with infectious mononucleosis.
  • Herpes simplex virus (HSV)Herpes can involve the face and skin above the waist, or the genitalia.
  • Varicella zoster virus (VZV). Also known as chickenpox, a complication of VZV is hepatitis.
  • Enteroviruses. A group of viruses commonly seen in children such as coxsackie viruses and echoviruses.
  • RubellaCaused by the Rubivirus, rubella is a mild disease that causes a rash.
  • Adenovirus. A group of viruses that commonly cause colds, tonsillitis, and ear infections in children. They can also cause diarrhea.
  • Parvovirus. A virus referred to as fifth disease, which is characterized by a facial rash that is described as having a "slapped-cheek" appearance.

2. What are the different types of hepatitis viruses?

Hepatitis A. This type of hepatitis is usually spread by fecal-oral contact, or fecal-infected food and water, and may also be spread by blood-borne infection (which is rare). The following is a list of modes of transmission for hepatitis A:

  • Consuming food made by an infected person who did not wash his or her hands well after using the bathroom
  • Drinking water that is contaminated by infected feces—a problem in developing countries with poor sewage removal
  • Getting your hands contaminated by an infected person's feces or dirty diaper, and then transmitting the infection to yourself by putting your hands near or in your mouth
  • Outbreaks may occur in child care centers especially when there are children in diapers
  • International travel to areas where hepatitis A is common
  • Sexual contact with an infected person
  • Use of illegal drugs
  • Blood transfusions (very rare)

Hepatitis B. Hepatitis B (HBV) has a wide range of clinical presentations. It can be mild, without symptoms, or it may cause chronic hepatitis. In some cases, when infants and young children acquire hepatitis B, they are at high risk for chronic liver disease and liver failure. Transmission of hepatitis B virus occurs when blood from an infected person enters another person's body. Needle sticks, sharp instruments, sharing items (razors, toothbrushes), and sex with an infected person are primary modes of transmission. Infants may also develop the disease if they are born to a mother who has the virus. Infected children often spread the virus to other children if there is frequent contact (i.e., household contact) or a child has many scrapes or cuts. The following describes persons who are at risk for developing hepatitis B:

  • Children born to mothers who have hepatitis B
  • Children who are born to mothers who have immigrated from a country where hepatitis B is widespread such as southeast Asia and China
  • Children who live in long-term care facilities or who are disabled
  • Children who live in households where another member is infected with the virus
  • Children who have a blood clotting disorder such as hemophilia and require blood products
  • Children who require dialysis for kidney failure
  • Adolescents who may participate in high-risk activities such as IV drug use and/or unprotected heterosexual or homosexual contact

A vaccine for hepatitis B does exist and is now widely used for routine childhood immunization. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) now recommends that universal infant hepatitis B vaccination should begin at birth except in rare circumstances.

The vaccine is given in three doses and is generally required for all children born on or after January 1, 1992, before they enter school. The vaccine is available for older children who may have not been immunized before 1992 and is recommended before age 11 or 12.

Hepatitis C. The symptoms of hepatitis C are usually mild and gradual. Children often show no symptoms at all. Transmission of hepatitis C occurs primarily from contact with infected blood, but can also occur from sexual contact or from an infected mother to her baby. Although hepatitis C has milder symptoms initially, it leads to chronic liver disease in a majority of people who are infected. According to the CDC, hepatitis C is the leading indication for liver transplantation in adults. With some cases of hepatitis C, no mode of transmission can be identified. The following describes persons who may be at risk for contracting hepatitis C:

  • Children born to mothers who are infected with the virus
  • People who have a blood clotting disorder such as hemophilia and received clotting factors before 1987
  • Children who require dialysis for kidney failure
  • Individuals who received a blood transfusion before 1992
  • Adolescents who participate in high-risk activities such as IV drug use and/or unprotected heterosexual or homosexual contact

There is no vaccine for hepatitis C. People who are at risk should be checked regularly for hepatitis C. Persons who have hepatitis C should be monitored closely for signs of chronic hepatitis and liver failure.

Hepatitis D. This form of hepatitis can only occur in the presence of hepatitis B. If an individual has hepatitis B and does not show symptoms or shows very mild symptoms, infection with D can put that person at risk for liver failure that progresses rapidly. Hepatitis D can occur at the same time as the initial infection with B, or it may show up much later. Transmission of hepatitis D occurs the same way as hepatitis B, except the transmission from mother to baby is less common. Hepatitis D is rare in children born in the U.S. due to the common use of hepatitis B vaccine in infancy.

Hepatitis E. This form of hepatitis is similar to hepatitis A. Transmission occurs through fecal-oral contamination. It is less common in children than hepatitis A. Hepatitis E is most common in poorly developed countries and rarely seen in the United States. There is no vaccine for hepatitis E at this time.

Hepatitis G. This is the newest strain of hepatitis and very little is known about it. Transmission is believed to occur through blood and is most commonly seen in IV drug users, individuals with clotting disorders such as hemophilia, and individuals who require hemodialysis for renal failure. Often hepatitis G shows no clinical symptoms and has not been found to be a cause of acute or chronic hepatitis.

​​​​​​​3. Why is hepatitis a concern?

Hepatitis is a concern because it often originates from a virus and is communicable (can be spread from your child to others). In some cases, liver failure or death can occur. However, not everyone who is infected will experience symptoms.

​​​​​​​4. What are the symptoms of hepatitis?

The following are the most common symptoms for hepatitis. However, each child may experience symptoms differently and some children may experience no symptoms at all.

Symptoms of acute (abrupt onset) hepatitis may include the following:

  • Flu-like symptoms
  • Jaundice (yellow color in the skin and/or eyes)
  • Fever
  • Nausea and/or vomiting
  • Decreased appetite
  • Not feeling well all over
  • Abdominal pain or discomfort
  • Diarrhea
  • Joint pain
  • Sore muscles
  • Itchy red hives on skin
  • Clay-colored stools
  • Dark urine

Later symptoms include dark-colored urine and jaundice (yellowing of the skin, and eyes). The symptoms of hepatitis may resemble other conditions or medical problems. Always consult your child's physician for a diagnosis.

​​​​​​​5. How is hepatitis diagnosed?

In addition to a complete medical history and examination by your physician, diagnostic procedures and other tests to determine the extent of the disease may include the following:

  • Blood testing for the following:
    • Liver function studies
    • Antibody studies (to check for hepatitis)
    • Cellular blood counts
    • Bleeding times
    • Electrolytes
    • Other chemicals in the body


Other liver disorders


HLH ( hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis )

Infantile hepatic hemangio-endotheliomas